Mattresses that are well-made must contain several layers designed both to give the mattress support and keep the owner comfortable. Generally, a mattress has either an inner spring core or contains materials that are meant to cushion the owner. When the mattress has coils, it also needs insulator pads that keep the upholstery from coming in contact with the springs. There is also polyester fiberfill in the top layers. There are many other components that are added to the mattress as it becomes more expensive as a way to make the mattress more comfortable.

The innersprings are usually made by a company that specializes in springs. The springs are connected to each other with wire. Mattresses generally have under a thousand coils and the coils number at least in the hundreds, though the number of coils goes up or down depending on the mattress brand.

An insulator layer is created using wire mesh made up of different fibers. The insulator is attached to the innerspring by hand. It also has a cushioning layer that has a large impact on the comfort of the mattress. The mattress will have more cushioning layers if it is of higher quality, which influences how comfortable the mattress is. Regardless of the number of layers, the very top layer is the quilt. The quilt has light foam and attaches directly to the cover of the mattress.

As can be inferred by the design, the decorative aspects of the mattress are sewn on. Rather than being hand sewn, the decorative elements are sewn using a quilting machine. The side handles must also be sewn on the mattress.

Mattresses have a connecting panel that is stapled to the mattress. The panels are stitched to each other using a border tape. As the mattress is stitched together, the pillowtop is usually applied, if the mattress has a pillowtop at all. The stitching is performed using a machine designed specifically for this purpose by tape edge operators.

The foundation (box spring) part of the mattress is made of a wooden or metal frame. The frame has either slats or metal coils. The foundation has a fabric cover that surrounds the foundation.

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